The need to reduce the overall weight of aeronautical and space structures while preserving or even improving their performances make the research and development in the field of advanced composite materials necessary for the advancement of aerospace technologies. This paper provides an overview of composite materials and their fiber reinforcement technology in aerospace field. We discuss the reasons for aircraft manufacturers and airlines to use composites and illustrate the definition of composite material. Then, we list the advantages and disadvantage of composite materials and cite different fiber reinforcement technologies of carbon fibers, aramid fiber, UHMWPE, etc. At last, we summarize the present and future applications of composites materials in aerospace and other civil fields. A conclusion is drawn that in the future, composite materials are set for their development, while continually decreasing its costs is still an important task.