There is a brick-vault roofed bathroom building, commonly known as the Cistern Hall (Wengtang), opposite the Grand Baoen Temple Heritage and Scenic Area near the Zhonghua Gate in Nanjing. This article analyzes its shape and characteristics by means of a 3D scan that surveys and maps out 2019 data on the site. On this basis, this article suggests that the bathroom may have been built as an annex to the Grand Baoen Temple in the early Ming dynasty. This kind of bathroom design originated in West Asia, entered China during the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) and became popular in the Jiangnan region during the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. In a lively exchange of architectural ideas, it bore witness to rich, in-depth architectural cultural exchanges between China, Central Asia, and West Asia in the Yuan and Ming dynasties.
Chang Q. The civilization of the Western Regions and the changes of Chinese architecture. 1992, Hunan Education Publishing House, Changsha.
Zheng Z. Uncover the mysterious history of Juen Spring in the cistern of the Ming Dynasty [J]. Zheng He Research, 2009, 2009(3): 44-45, 51.
Ge Y. Jinling Pure Land Chronicles. 2006, Guangling Publishing House, Yangzhou.
Wu M. Suspicion of Brahma Temple. 2006, Guangling Publishing House, Yangzhou.
Yang Z. Orchid soup and perfume [J]. Forbidden City, 2011, 2011(4): 92-98.
Zhang S. The Five Mountains and Ten Temples and the Southern Song Dynasty Jiangnan Temple. 2000, Southeast University Press, Nanjing.
Provincial Administration of Cultural Relics. Tang Huaqing Palace. 1998, Wenwu Press, Beijing.
Huai H. The imperial repair Baizhang clear rules. 2000, Thread-Binding Books Publishing House, Beijing.
Liu Y. Western Ambassador. 1985, Zhong Hua Book Company, Beijing.
Lang Y. Seven revision drafts. 2001, Shanghai Bookstore Publishing House, Shanghai.
Wen Z. Zhang Wu Zhi. 1936, The Commercial Press, Beijing.
Li D. Records of Yangzhou Painting Boats. 1960, Zhong Hua Book Company, Beijing.
Cai G. The history of Gusu Huntang [J]. Suzhou Magazine, 2003, 2003(5): 40-41.
Lin M. The baptism of Persian civilization – The fourth part of Iran investigation in 2012 [J]. Forbidden City, 2012, 2012(9): 16-27.
Zhou M. Guixin miscellaneous historical notes. 1988, Zhong Hua Book Company, Beijing.
Wang R. History of world architecture: Islamic Volume 1. 2014, China Architecture & Building Press, Beijing.
Ettinghausen R, Grabar O, Jenkins-Madina M. Islamic art and architecture 650-1250. 2001, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
Kanetaki E. The still existing Ottoman Hammams in the Greek territory [J]. METU JFA, 2004, 2004(1-2): 81-110.
Sibley M. The pre-Ottoman public baths of Damascus and their survival into the 21st century: An analytical survey [J]. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 2007, 2007(4): 271-288.
Dow M. The Islamic baths of Palestine. 1996, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Sami Abd Al-Malik. Les hammams en Arabie centrale [J]. Arabian Humanaities. 2012, 2012(17). http://journals.openedition.org/cy/1801
Asanova G, Dow M. The ?arr?f?n Baths in Bukhara [J]. Iran, 2001, 2001(1): 187-205.
Boyar E, Fleet K. A social history of Ottoman Istanbul. 2010, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Sibley M, Jackson I. The architecture of Islamic public baths of North Africa and the Middle East: An analysis of their internal spatial configurations [J]. Architectural Research Quarterly, 2012, 2012(2): 155-170.
Vogt-Göknil U. Living architecture: Ottoman. 1966, Oldbourne, London.
Shan S. Investigation of Yude Hall in the Forbidden City’s Wuying Hall [J]. Palace Museum Journal, 1985, 1985(3): 45-48, 68.
Wang Z. A new interpretation of the bathroom of the Forbidden City Yude Hall [J]. Forbidden City, 2011, 2011(11): 22-27.
Hu G. Records of Ming Taizu. 1962, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei.
Ding B. The collected works of Ding Qinghui. The Compilation Committee of the Si Ku Jin Hui Shu Congkan. Si Ku Jin Hui Shu Congkan: Collection 44. 1997, Beijing Publishing House, Beijing.
Liu Y. Chenghua Zhongdu Zhi. Shanghai Bookstore. The continuation of the selected publications of Ming Dynasty local chronicles in the Tianyi Pavilion collection: 33. 1990, Shanghai Bookstore, Shanghai.
Yang X. Ming Palace of Nanjing. 2009, Nanjing Publishing House, Nanjing.
Reyhan K, Ba?akipeko?lu, Böke H. Construction techniques of domes in some Ottoman baths [J]. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2013, 2013(3): 35-40.
Petersen A. Dictionary of Islamic architecture. 1996, Routledge, London.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.