Korean Red Ginseng: Benefits Versus Precautions

Abstract

Over the years, Korean red ginseng (RG), scientifically known as Panax ginseng, has been used to treat several diseases. It is a prominent and ancient medicinal herb in the Orient. Ginseng ginsenoside is the major component of RG which has been presumed to be responsible for the health benefits of RG. Many studies on P. ginseng have until now concentrated on the mechanism of action of the individual components of RG. However, despite the numerous research on the molecular basis of P. ginseng activities, it is still confusing how several active components can simultaneously interact with several targets to give the diverse effects in different diseases. This overview covered the positive and negative effects of using the Korean RG; it also outlined the major chemical components of the Korean RG.

References

Brekhman, I.I.; Dardymov, I.V. New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol., 1969, 9, 419-430.

Nag, S.A.; Qin, J.J.; Wang, W.; Wang, M.H.; Wang, H.; Zhang, R. Ginsenosides as anticancer agents: In vitro and in vivo activities, structure-activity relationships, and molecular mechanisms of action. Front Pharmacol., 2012, 25, 1-18.

Seo, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, N.W.; Her, E.; Chang, S.H.; Ko, N Y.; Yoo, Y.H.; Kim, J.W.; Seo, D.W.; Han, J.W.; Kim, Y.M.; Choi, W S. Effect of a fermented ginseng extract, BST204, on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in murine macrophages. Int. Immunopharmacol., 2005, 5(5), 929-936.

Zhu, J.; Mu, X.; Zeng, J.; Xu, C.; Liu, J.; Zhang, M.; Li, C.; Chen, J.; Li, T.; Wang, Y. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cognitive impairment and hippocampus senescence in a rat model of D-galactose-induced aging. PLoS One, 2014, 9(6), e101291.

Gotteeman, M.M.; Pastan, I. Biochemistry of multidrug resistance mediated by the multidrug trans-port. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 1993, 62, 385-427.

Park, J.D.; Kim, D.S.; Kwon, H.Y.; Son, S.K.; Lee, Y.H.; Baek, N.I.; Kim, S.I.; Rhee, D.K. Effect of ginseng saponin on modulation of multidrug resistance. Arch. Pharm. Res., 1996, 19, 213-218.

Kwon, H.Y.; Kim, E.H.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, S.N.; Park, J.D.; Rhee, D.K. Selective toxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 on multidrug resistance cells by membrane fluidity modulation. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2008, 31, 171-177.

Jin, J.; Shahi, S.; Kang, H.K.; Veen, H.W.; van, Fan T.P. Metabolite of ginsenosides as novel BCRP inhibitors. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2006, 345, 1308-1314.

Rai, D.; Bhatia, G.; Sen, T.; Palit, G. Anti-stress effects of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng: A comparative study. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2003, 93(4), 458-464.

Lee, S.T.; Chu, K.; Sim, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Kim, M. Panax ginseng enhances cognitive performance in Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord., 2008, 22(3), 222-6.

Lee, J.S.; Choi, H.S.; Kang, S.W.; Chung, J.H.; Park, H.K.; Ban, J.Y.; Kwon, O.Y.; Hong, H.P.; Ko, Y.G. Therapeutic effect of Korean red ginseng on inflammatory cytokines in rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Am. J. Chin. Med., 2011, 39(1), 83-94.

Xie, J.T.; Zhou, Y.P.; Dey, L.; Attele, A.S.; Wu, J.A.; Gu, M.; Polonsky, K.S.; Yuan, C.S. Ginseng berry reduces blood glucose and body weight in db/db mice. Phytomedicine, 2002, 9(3), 254-258.

Jang, D.J.; Lee, M.S.; Shin, B.C.; Lee, Y.C.; Ernst, E. Red ginseng for treating erectile dysfunction: A systematic review. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 2008, 66(4), 444-450.

Wang, X.; Su, G.Y.; Zhao, C.; Qu, F.Z.; Wang, P.; Zhao, Y.Q. Anticancer activity and potential mechanisms of 1C, a ginseng saponin derivative, on prostate cancer cells. J. Ginseng Res., 2018, 42(2), 133-143.

Coon, J.T.; Ernst, E. Panax ginseng: A systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug Saf., 2002, 25, 323-344.

Park, S.Y.; Park, J.H.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, C.Y.; Lee, H.J.; Kang, K S.; Kim, C.E. Systems-level mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng: A network pharmacological approach. J. Ginseng Res., 2018, 42(1), 98-106.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.